Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application(PGDCA)

DCS – 101  Fundament als of Programming Using C
Programming Tools: Problem analysis, Program constructs (sequential, decision, loops), Algorithm, Flowchart, Pseudo code, Decision table, Modular programming, Top Down  and  Bottom  up  approaches,  Concept  of  High  Level  Languages,  Low  Level
Languages, Assembly Languages, Compiler, Interpreter, Type of errors.

Overview of C: General structure of C Program.
Data  types,  Operators  and  expressions:  Constants  and  Variables,  Data  types,
Declaring Variables, Storage Classes, Different types of expressions and their Evaluation,
Conditional  Expression,  Assignment  statement,  Enumerated  data  type,  Redefining/
Creating data types, Library functions, Type casting.
Input/Output:  Unformatted  and  formatted  I/O  Functions  (Character  and  strings
I/O, Scanf ( ), Printf ( ) ) Control  Statements:  Decision  making  using if,  if-else,  elseif  and  switch statements,  Looping  using for,  while  and do-while statements,  Transferring  Program controlling break and continue statements, Programming examples to illustrate the use of  these control statements.
Pointers: Definition, Need of pointers, declaring  Pointers, Accessing Values  via  Pointers, Pointer arithmetic, Types of pointers.
Array  &  strings:  Introduction  to  arrays,  Declaring  arrays,  Initializing  arrays,
Processing  arrays,  Pointers  to  arrays,  Passing  arrays  as  arguments  to  functions,
Introduction  to  strings,  Pointers  to  strings,  Passing  strings  and  Arrays  of  strings  as arguments to a function, Programming examples to illustrate the use of arrays and strings.
Functions:  Defining  a  function,  Local variables, return statement,  invoking  a
Function,  specifying  and  passing  arguments  to  a  function,  Functions  returning  non
Integer, External, static, and register variable, block structure, initialization and recursion.
Structures:  Declaring  a  structure  type,  Declaring  Variables  of  structure  type,
Initializing  Structures,  Accessing  Elements  of  structures,  arrays  of  structures,  nested structures, Pointers to structures.
Text Books:
1.  Mullis Cooper: Spirit of C: Jacob Publications
2.  Yashwant Kanetkar: Let us C: BPB
Refrence Books:
1.  Kerninghan B.W. & Ritchie D. M.: The C Programming Language: PHI
2.  Yashwant Kanetkar: Pointers in C: BPB
3.  Gotterfied B.: Programming in C: Tata McGraw Hill
DCS – 102  PC SOFTWARE        
Operating system concept: Duties, Responsibilities and functions of an Operating
system, General understanding of different Operating System Environment (Single user
system, Multi user system, Graphical user interface system, character based system).
Disk Operating System: Concept of Files and Directories, Internal commands,
External commands, Batch Files, Filters, Redirection, Macros, Wild Card character
Booting Process, Configuration Files (Config.Sys)
General  Understanding  Of  Facilities,  Features  Of  Windows  Explorer,  Control
Panel Setting, Accessories, Recycle Bin.
Computer Virus: Prevention, Detection, Cure.
Word Processing Concepts: Definition, Benefits, Facilities & Features in general.
MS- Office 97: MS-Word  97:Word  processing  using  MS-WORD,  File  handling,  Editing,  Formatting,  spell  checking,  Mail  merge  &  Table  handling  &  Insertion,  importing, exporting & object linking embedding, printing operation.
Spreadsheet: features, uses & benefits in general.
MS-Excel 97: Entering data & selecting cells, editing worksheet data, formatting
worksheet,  creating  Formulae,  function  &  charts  /graphs,  multi  operation,  data  base
Presentation Tools: features, uses & benefits in general.
MS Power Point: Creating  & saving presentation templates & view (slide view,
notes view, outline view, slide show) Formatting text, slides & graphs, animations, slides
transition, multi operation.
Text Books:
1.  A.L.STEVENS: Teach Yourself Windows.
2.  A.L.STEVENS: Teach Yourself DOS.
4.  R.K.TAXALLI: Intro to software package, Galgotia publication.
5.  RAJIV MATTUS: dos quick reference , Galgotia .
6.  RAJIV MATTUS: Learning Word 97 for windows step by step BPB publication.
7.  RAJIV MATTUS: Learning Excel 97 for windows step by step BPB publication
8.  RAJIV MATTUS: Learning window 98 step by step BPB publication
9.  LONNIE .E. MOSELEY& DAVID M.BOODEY: Mastering office 97.
10. MICRO SOFT OFFICE 97: Unleashed : Techmedia.
11. JOHN WALKEN BACH: Excel 97

Introduction:  Definition  Of  The  Operating  System,  Functions  Of  An  Operating
System, Different Types Of Systems – Simple Batch System, Multi-Programmed Batched
System,  Time  Sharing  System,  Personal  Computer  Systems,  Parallel  Systems,
Distributed Systems, Real Time Systems.
Process Management:  Process- Process Concept, Process Scheduling,  Operation
On  Processes,  Cooperating  Processes,  Threads,  Inter-Process  Communication,  CPU Scheduling–scheduling criteria, scheduling algorithms – FCFS, SJF, priority scheduling, round  robin  scheduling,  multilevel  queue  scheduling,  multilevel  feedback  queue scheduling, multiple processor scheduling, real time scheduling.
Deadlocks:  Deadlock  Characterization,  Methods  For  Handling  Deadlocks,
Deadlock  Prevention,  Deadlock  Avoidance,  Deadlock  Detection,  Recovery  From
Memory Management: Logical & physical address space, Swapping, Continuous
Allocation (single partition, multiple partition), internal, external fragmentation, Paging,
Segmentation,  Segmentation  With  Paging,  Virtual  Memory,  Demand  Paging,
Performance  Of  Demand  Paging,  Page  Replacement,  Page  Replacement  Algorithms– FIFO,  optimal,  LRU,  LRU  approximation  algorithms,  counting  algorithms  Thrashing, Demand Segmentation.
File  System  Interface:  File  Concept,  Access  Methods–sequential,  direct,  index,
Directory Structure–single-level, two–level, tree-structured, acyclic-graph, general graph.
File  System  Implementation:  File  System  Structure,  Allocation  Methods
contiguous allocation, linked allocation, indexed allocation, Secondary Storage Structure:
Disk  Structure,  Disk  Scheduling,  FCFS,  SSTF,  SCAN,  C-SCAN,  Look  Scheduling,
Selection of A Scheduling Algorithm, Disk Management-disk formatting, boot block, bad
Text Books:
1.  Silberschatz,  Galvin “Operating  System  Concepts”,  Addison  Wesley  Publishing
Company, 1989.
Reference Books:
1.  William Stallings, “Operating Systems”, Macmillan Publishing Company.
2.  Deitel  H.M., “An  Introduction  To  Operating  System”,  Addison  Wesley  Publishing
Company, 1984.
3.  Tanenbaum, A.S., “Modern Operating System”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. 1995.
Basics:  Organization   &  Architecture,  Structure  &  Function,  A  brief  history,
mechanical & electromechanical ancestors, First, Second, Third & later generations, Van
Neumann Machine, Block diagrams of computer system.
Register  transfers  &  micro-operations:  Register  Transfer  Language,  Register
transfer, Bus & memory transfers, Arithmetic loops, Logic loops, Shift loops, Arithmetic,
logic, shift unit.
Basic  computer  organization  &  design: Instruction  codes,  Computer  registers,
Computer  Instructions,  Timing  &  Control,  Instruction  cycle,  memory  reference
instruction, I-O interrupt, Design of basic computer, Design of accumulator logic.
Micro-programmed  Control:  Control  Memory,  Address  sequencing,  Design  of
control unit.
Central  Processing  Unit:  General  Register  Organization,  Stack  organization,
Instruction  formats  (zero,  one,  two,  three),  Address  Instructions,  Addressing  Modes
(direct,  indirect,  Immediate,  relative,  indexed),  Data  transfer  & manipulation,  Program
control, RISC.
Computer  Arithmetic:  Addition  &  Subtraction,  Multiplication  algorithms,
Division Algorithms, Floating point arithmetic operations,
IO  Organization:  Peripheral  devices,  I/O  interfaces,  asynchronous  data  transfer,
Modes of Data transfer, Priority Interrupts, DMA, I-O processors, Serial Communication.
Memory Organization: Memory Hierarchy, Main Memory, Associative Memory,
Cache Memory, Virtual Memory, Memory management hardware.
Multiprocessors:  Characteristics,  Interconnection  structures:  Time  shared,
Common bus, Multi-port, Crossbar switch, Multistage, Inter-processor arbitration, Inter
processor  communication  &  synchronization,  cache  coherence,  multiprocessing,  vector
computation, Fault tolerant systems.
RISC: Instruction execution characteristics, Use of large register files, Computer
based Register optimization, Reduced instruction set architecture, RISC pipeline.
Text Books:
1.  Morris M. Mano: Computer System & Architecture: PHI.
2.  Stallings & Williams: Computer Organization & Architecture: Maxwell Macmillan.
Reference Books:
1.  V.Rajaraman & Radhakrishnan: Introduction to Digital Computer Design: PHI
2.  P.Pal Chowdhary: Computer Organization & Design: PHI

DCS – 201    DATA and FILE STRUCTURE       
Preliminaries:  Concept   &  notation,  common  operation  on  data  structures,
algorithm  complexity,  time-space  trade  off  between  algorithm,  physical  &  logical
representation of different data structures.
Arrays:  Arrays  defined,  representing  arrays  in  memory,  Various  operation
(traversal,  insertion,  deletion),  Multidimensional  arrays,  Sequential  allocation,  Address
calculation, Sparse arrays.
Linked  List:  Definition,  type  (linear,  circular,  doubly  linked,  inverted),
representing linked lists in memory, advantages of using linked list over arrays, various
operations on Linked list (traversal, insertion, deletion).
Stacks:  Definition  &  concepts  of  stack  structure,  Implementation  of  stacks,
Operation  on  stacks  (push  &  pop),  Application  of  stacks  (converting  arithmetic
expression  from  infix  notation  to  polish  and  their  subsequent  evaluation),  quick  sort
technique to sort an array, recursion).
Queue: Definition  & concept  of  queues,  implementation  of  queue,  operation  on
queues (insert & delete), Type of queues (circular queue, priority queue).
Trees  Structures:  Tree,  Binary  Trees,  Tree  Traversal  Algorithms  (Pre-Order,  In-Order, Post-Order), Threaded Trees, Trees in  various Sorting  & Searching  Algorithms & their Complexity (Heap Sort, Binary Search Trees).
Sorting  & Searching: Selection sort, Bubble sort, Merge sort, Radix  sort, Quick
sort, Sequential search, Linear search and their complexity.
Text Books:
1.  Jean  Paul  Tremblay  &  Paul  G.  Sorenson:  An  Introduction  to  Data  Structures  with Applications: Tata McGraw Hill.
2.  Aaron  M.  Tenenbaum,  Yedidyah  Langsam,  Moshe  J.  Augenstein:  Data  Structures
using C: PHI
Refrence Books:
1.  Robert L. Kruse: Data Structures & Program Design: PHI
2.  Aho, Hopcroft & Ullman: Data Structures and Algorithms: Addison Wesley.
3.  T.A. Standish: Introduction to Data Structures.
4.  Nell Dale & Susan C. Lilly: Pascal Plus Data Structures, Algorithms and Advanced
Programming: Galgotia.

Overview  of  system  analysis  and  design,  Business  systems  concepts,  systems
development  life  cycle,  project  selection,  feasibility  analysis,  design,  implementation,
testing and evaluation.
Project Selection:  Source  of  project  requests,  managing  project  review  and
selection, preliminary investigation.
Feasibility Study: Technical and economic feasibilities, cost and benefit analysis.
System requirement specification and analysis: Fact finding techniques, Data flow
diagrams,  data  dictionaries,  process  organisation  and  interactions,  Decision  analysis, decision trees and tables.
Detailed  Design:  Modularisation,  Module  Specification,  File  Design,  System
Development Involving Data Basis.
Systems  control  and  Quality  Assurance:  Design  objectives,  reliability  and
maintenance, software design and documentation tools, topdown, bottomup and variants.
Units and integration testing, testing practices and plans. System controls, Audit trails.
System Administration and Training, conversion and Operating Plans.
Hardware  and  software  selection,  Hardware  acquisition,  memory,  processes,
peripherals,  bench-marking,  vendor  selection,  software  selection,  operating  systems,
languages processes, performance and acceptance criteria.
Reference Books:
1.  James, A.S. : Analysis and Design of Information Systems, McGraw Hill, 1986.
2.  Ludeberg,  M.,  Gulkoh1,  G.  &  Hilsson,  A.:  Information  Systems Development:   A
Systematic Approach, Prentice Hall Intern. 1981.
3.  Lesson, M.: Systems Analysis and Design, Science research Associates, 1985.
4.  Semprive, P.C. : System Analysis: Definition, Process and Design, 1982.

DCS –  203   Object Oriented Programming & C++
Object oriented programming: Need for OOP, the project oriented approach,
characterstics  of  OOP  language-objects,  classes,  Inheritance,  Reusability,
Polymorphism, overloading advantage of OOP, the relationship between C and C++
Programming  Basic-  Basic  program  construction,  output  using  cout,
preprocessor  directive,  comments,  integer  variables,  character  variables,  input  with
cin type float manipulator, type conversion, arithmetic operators, relational operators,
loops  and  decision:  loop- for,  while,  do,  decision-if,  if- else,  switch,  conditional
operator, logical operator-AND, OR, NOT, other control statements-break, continue,
Structures  and  functions:  structures,  Accessing  structure  members,  structure
within  a  structure,  Enumerated  Data  type,  simple  functions,  passing  arguments  to
functions,  Returning  values  from  functions,  reference  arguments,  overloaded
functions, variable and storage class.
Objects and  classes:  A  simple  class,  classes and  objects,  specifying  a  class,
using a class, C++
objects as physical objects, C++ objects as data types. Constructors,
objects as function arguments, returning objects from functions.
Arrays: Array  fundamental-defining array, array elements, Accessing array
elements,  Initializing  arrays,  multidimensional  arrays,  passing  arrays  to  functions,
array of objects, strings-string variables, Avoiding Buffer overflow, string constants,
array of strings string as class members.
Operator  overloading:  Overloading  unary  operators-the  operator  keyboard,
operator arguments, operator return values nameless temporary objects, limitation of
increment  operators,  overloading  Binary  operators,  data  conversion,  Pitfalls  of
operator overloading and conversion.
Inheritance:   Derived  class  and  base  class,  specifying  the  derived  class,
accessing  base  class,  members,  derived  class  constructors,  overriding  member
functions,  class  hierarchies,  public  and  private  Inheritance,  levels  of  inheritance,
multiple inheritance.
Text Book:
1.  Robert Lafore, “Object oriented programming in Turbo C++.”Galgotia Publications.

Basic  Concepts,  Data  Modeling  for  a  Database,  Records  and  Files,  Abstraction
and Data Integration, The Three-Level Architecture Proposal for DBMS, Components of
a DBMS, Advantages and Disadvantages of a DBMS.
Data Models, Data Associations, Data Models Classification, Entity Relationship
Model, Relational Data Model, Network Data Model, Hierarchical Model.
The  Relational  Model,  Relational  Database,  Relational  Algebra,  Relational
Relational  Database  Manipulation,  SQL,  Data  Manipulation,  Basic  Data
Retrieval,  Condition  Specification,  Arithmetic  and  Aggregate  Operators,  SQL  Join:
Multiple  Tables  Queries,  Set  Manipulation,  Categorization, Updates,  Views:  SQL,
QUEL, Data Definition, Data Manipulation; QUEL, Condition Specification, Renaming,
Arithmetic  Operators,  Multiple  Variable  Queries,  Aggregation  Operators  in  QUEL,
Retrieve into Temporary Relation, Updates, Views.
Relational  Database  Design,  Relational  Scheme  and  Relational  Design,
Anomalies in a Database: A Consequence of Bad Design, Universal Relation, Functional
Dependency, Relational Database Design.
Concurrency  Management,  Serializability,  Concurrency  Control,  Locking
Scheme,  Timestamp-Based  Order,  Optimistic  Scheduling,  Multiversion  Techniques,
Deadlock and Its Resolution.
Database Security, Integrity, and Control, Security and Integrity, Threats, Defense
Mechanisms, Integrity .
Text Books:
1.  Desai,  B., “An  Introduction  To  Database  Concepts.” Galgotia  Publications,  New Delhi.